Nearly 45% of India’s population is directly dependent on agriculture and 70% of the rural population is engaged in agriculture. It is a primary sector that produces food grains and raw materials for the secondary sector. India has a huge land for the cultivation of food crops as well as non-food crops which are cultivated in three main seasons which are Rabi, Kharif, and Zaid.
The main crops are food crops and cash crops. Rice, Wheat, Maize, and pulses are termed the food crops. Whether cash crops are sugarcane, tea, coffee, rubber, cotton, or jute.
It is the most essential food crop for Indian people. India produced rice last year at 122 million metric tonnes and India is the second-largest country in the world producing rice after China. It needs a temperature between 22-32°C with high humidity. 150-300 cm of rainfall is needed. Deep clayey and loamy soil is preferred. Top Rice-producing states are West Bengal, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar. The national food security mission and Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana are a few government initiatives to support rice cultivation. Indian Rice is distributed into two parts, one is Basmati Rice and the other is Non-Basmati Rice. So, rice has to be sown between June-July and harvested in September-October.
India is the second-largest producer of Wheat after China. This is the second major crop and main food in the North after rice. It is sown in October-December with a temperature of 10-15°C, harvesting is done between April-June with bright sunlight and a temperature of 21-26°C. Around 75-100 cm is required. Green Revolution’s success contributed to Wheat more. National Food Security Mission (NFSD) and Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) are some government initiatives that support wheat cultivation. Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, and Rajasthan are the top Wheat producing states in India. This type of agriculture is called mystical agriculture.
India is the second-largest tea producer in the world and 70% of the consumption is within India itself. Indian Tea production, exportation, and all other aspects of the Tea trade are controlled by the Tea Board of India. The required temperature is 20-30°C. The rainfall needed is around 150-300 cm. It accounts for the cash crops of India.
Tea cultivation is a labor-intensive industry. It requires cheap and skilled labor to be processed within the tea garden to maintain its freshness. West Bengal and Tamil Nadu are the top Tea producing states in India. Tea Development and Promotion Scheme, Wage Compensation Scheme, and Tea Boutiques are a few government schemes for Tea Cultivation. Also, find strawberry picking near me.
World’s seventh-largest producer and famous for its variety of coffee ‘Arabica’.Coffee was initially brought from Yemen and introduced to the Baba Budan Hills. 15-28°C of temperature with a rainfall of 150-250 cm is required to fulfill the need to grow coffee. Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamilnadu are the leading states producing top coffee.
The Coffee Board of India is an organization managed by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry to promote Coffee production in India. A total of 720 million dollars worth of coffee was exported in 42% Robusta, 22% Arabica, and 31% instant coffee last year.
In the above article, we understood the different types of crops that are grown in India. Rice and Wheat come under food crops, whereas Tea and coffee are termed cash crops. As we know, agriculture plays a vital role in our community and it provides almost 17.8% of the country’s Gross Value Added (GVA) for the year 2019-2020. Agriculture is the primary base of the entire Economy.